1. The following Terms of Service ("TOS") govern The Berkeley Electronic Press' (TM) ("bepress") provision of service to you. The TOS may be updated by us from time to time without notice to you. Find the current version of the TOS. In addition to the terms found at the preceding URL, when using particular bepress owned or operated services, you and bepress shall be subject to any posted guidelines or rules applicable to such services, which may be posted from time to time. All such guidelines or rules are hereby incorporated by reference into the TOS. Bepress may also offer other services that are governed by different Terms of Service. For example, submissions to bepress journals are governed by the author’s click-through agreement at the time of submission.
  2. DESCRIPTION OF SERVICE
    Bepress provides users with access to a rich collection of resources, including various communications tools, document processing tools and web publishing tools. You understand and agree that the Service may include advertisements and that these advertisements are necessary for bepress to provide the Service. You also understand and agree that the Service may include certain communications from bepress, such as service announcements, administrative messages and that these communications are considered part of bepress membership. As much as is reasonably practicable, we will try to make sure that you can opt out of receiving messages: one example of a situation where we would write to you would be to announce a planned interruption in your service. Unless explicitly stated otherwise, any new features that augment or enhance the current Service, including the release of new bepress properties, shall be subject to the TOS. You understand and agree that the Service is provided "AS-IS" and that bepress assumes no responsibility for the timeliness, deletion, mis-delivery or failure to store any user communications or personalization settings. You are responsible for obtaining access to the Service, and that access may involve third-party fees (such as Internet service provider or airtime charges). You are responsible for those fees, including those fees associated with the display or delivery of advertisements. In addition, you must provide and are responsible for all equipment necessary to access the Service.
  3. YOUR OBLIGATIONS IN CREATING AN ACCOUNT
    In consideration of your use of the Service, you represent that you are of legal age to form a binding contract and are not a person barred from receiving services under the laws of the United States or other applicable jurisdiction. You also agree to: (a) provide true, accurate, current and complete information about yourself as prompted by the Service's registration form (the "Registration Data") and (b) maintain and promptly update the Registration Data to keep it true, accurate, current and complete. If you provide any information that is untrue, inaccurate, not current or incomplete, or bepress has reasonable grounds to suspect that such information is untrue, inaccurate, not current or incomplete, bepress has the right to suspend or terminate your account and refuse any and all current or future use of the Service (or any portion thereof).
  4. BEPRESS PRIVACY POLICY
    Account Data and certain other information about you is subject to our Privacy Policy. For more information, see our full privacy policy at www.bepress.com/privacy.html. You understand that through your use of the Service you consent to the collection and use (as set forth in the Privacy Policy) of this information, including the transfer of this information to the United States and/or other countries for storage, processing and use by bepress and its affiliates.
  5. MEMBER ACCOUNT, PASSWORD AND SECURITY
    You will receive a password and account designation upon completing the Service's registration process. You are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of the password and account and are fully responsible for all activities that occur under your password or account. You agree to (a) immediately notify bepress of any unauthorized use of your password or account or any other breach of security, and (b) ensure that you exit from your account at the end of each session. Bepress cannot and will not be liable for any loss or damage arising from your failure to comply with this Section 5.
  6. ACCOUNT HOLDER CONDUCT
    You understand that all information, data, text, software, music, sound, photographs, graphics, video, messages, tags, or other materials ("Content"), whether publicly posted or privately transmitted, are the sole responsibility of the person from whom such Content originated. This means that you, and not bepress, are entirely responsible for all Content that you upload, post, email, transmit or otherwise make available via the Service. Bepress does not control the Content posted via the Service and, as such, does not guarantee the accuracy, integrity or quality of such Content. You understand that by using the Service, you may be exposed to Content that is offensive, indecent or objectionable. Under no circumstances will bepress be liable in any way for any Content, including, but not limited to, any errors or omissions in any Content, or any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of any Content posted, emailed, transmitted or otherwise made available via the Service.

    You agree to not use the Service to:

    1. upload, post, email, transmit or otherwise make available any Content that is unlawful, harmful, threatening, abusive, harassing, tortuous, defamatory, vulgar, obscene, libelous, invasive of another's privacy, hateful, or racially, ethnically or otherwise objectionable;
    2. harm minors in any way;
    3. impersonate any person or entity, including, but not limited to, a bepress official, forum leader, guide or host, or falsely state or otherwise misrepresent your affiliation with a person or entity;
    4. forge headers or otherwise manipulate identifiers in order to disguise the origin of any Content transmitted through the Service;
    5. upload, post, email, transmit or otherwise make available any Content that you do not have a right to make available under any law or under contractual or fiduciary relationships (such as inside information, proprietary and confidential information learned or disclosed as part of employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements);
    6. upload, post, email, transmit or otherwise make available any Content that infringes any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright or other proprietary rights ("Rights") of any party;
    7. upload, post, email, transmit or otherwise make available any unsolicited or unauthorized advertising, promotional materials, "junk mail," "spam," "chain letters," "pyramid schemes," or any other form of solicitation, except in those areas (such as shopping) that are designated for such purpose;
    8. upload, post, email, transmit or otherwise make available any material that contains software viruses or any other computer code, files or programs designed to interrupt, destroy or limit the functionality of any computer software or hardware or telecommunications equipment;
    9. interfere with or disrupt the Service or servers or networks connected to the Service, or disobey any requirements, procedures, policies or regulations of networks connected to the Service;
    10. intentionally or unintentionally violate any applicable local, state, national or international law, including, but not limited to, regulations promulgated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, any rules of any national or other securities exchange, including, without limitation, the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange or the NASDAQ, and any regulations having the force of law;
    11. provide material support or resources (or to conceal or disguise the nature, location, source, or ownership of material support or resources) to any organization(s) designated by the United States government as a foreign terrorist organization pursuant to section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act;
    12. "stalk" or otherwise harass another; and/or
    13. collect or store personal data about other users in connection with the prohibited conduct and activities set forth in paragraphs a through m above.
    You acknowledge that bepress may or may not pre-screen Content, but that bepress and its designees shall have the right (but not the obligation) in their sole discretion to pre-screen, refuse, or move any Content that is available via the Service. Without limiting the foregoing, bepress and its designees shall have the right to remove any Content that violates the TOS or is otherwise objectionable. You agree that you must evaluate, and bear all risks associated with, the use of any Content, including any reliance on the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of such Content. In this regard, you acknowledge that you may not rely on any Content created by bepress or submitted to bepress, including without limitation information in bepress Message Boards and in all other parts of the Service.

    You acknowledge, consent and agree that bepress may access, preserve and disclose your account information and Content if required to do so by law or in a good faith belief that such access preservation or disclosure is reasonably necessary to: (a) comply with legal process; (b) enforce the TOS; (c) respond to claims that any Content violates the rights of third parties; (d) respond to your requests for customer service; or (e) protect the rights, property or personal safety of bepress, its users and the public.

    You understand that the technical processing and transmission of the Service, including your Content, may involve (a) transmissions over various networks; and (b) changes to conform and adapt to technical requirements of connecting networks or devices.

    You understand that the Service and software embodied within the Service may include security components that permit digital materials to be protected, and that use of these materials is subject to usage rules set by bepress and/or content providers who provide content to the Service. You may not attempt to override or circumvent any of the usage rules embedded into the Service. Any unauthorized reproduction, publication, further distribution or public exhibition of the materials provided on the Service, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited.
  7. INTERSTATE NATURE OF COMMUNICATIONS ON BEPRESS NETWORK
    When you register with bepress, you acknowledge that in using bepress services to send electronic communications (including but not limited to email, search queries, uploading photos and files to bepress, and other Internet activities), you will be causing communications to be sent through bepress's computer networks, which are located in California as of this writing. As a result, and also as a result of bepress’s network architecture and business practices and the nature of electronic communications, even communications that seem to be intrastate in nature can result in the transmission of interstate communications regardless of where you are physically located at the time of transmission. Accordingly, by agreeing to this Terms of Service, you acknowledge that use of the service results in interstate data transmissions.
  8. SPECIAL ADMONITIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL USE
    Recognizing the global nature of the Internet, you agree to comply with all local rules regarding online conduct and acceptable Content. Specifically, you agree to comply with all applicable laws regarding the transmission of technical data exported from the United States or the country in which you reside.
  9. CONTENT SUBMITTED OR MADE AVAILABLE FOR INCLUSION ON THE SERVICE
    Bepress does not claim ownership of Content you submit or make available for inclusion on the Service. However, with respect to Content you submit or make available for inclusion on publicly accessible areas of the Service, you grant bepress the worldwide, perpetual, royalty-free and non-exclusive license(s) to use, distribute for use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publicly perform and publicly display such Content on the Service.
  10. INDEMNITY
    You agree to indemnify and hold bepress and its subsidiaries, affiliates, officers, agents, employees, partners and licensors harmless from any claim or demand, including reasonable attorneys' fees, made by any third party due to or arising out of Content you submit, post, transmit or otherwise make available through the Service, your use of the Service, your connection to the Service, your violation of the TOS, or your violation of any rights of another.
  11. NO RESALE OF SERVICE
    You agree not to reproduce, duplicate, copy, sell, trade, resell or exploit for any commercial purposes, any portion of the Service (including your bepress login information), use of the Service, or access to the Service.
  12. GENERAL PRACTICES REGARDING USE AND STORAGE
    You acknowledge that bepress may establish general practices and limits concerning use of the Service, including without limitation the maximum number of days that email messages, message board postings or other uploaded Content will be retained by the Service, the maximum number of email messages that may be sent from or received by an account on the Service, the maximum size of any email message that may be sent from or received by an account on the Service, the maximum disk space that will be allotted on bepress's servers on your behalf, and the maximum number of times (and the maximum duration for which) you may access the Service in a given period of time. You agree that bepress has no responsibility or liability for the deletion or failure to store any messages and other communications or other Content maintained or transmitted by the Service. You acknowledge that bepress reserves the right to log off accounts that are inactive for an extended period of time. You further acknowledge that bepress reserves the right to modify these general practices and limits from time to time.
  13. MODIFICATIONS TO SERVICE
    Bepress reserves the right at any time and from time to time to modify or discontinue, temporarily or permanently, the Service (or any part thereof) with or without notice. You agree that bepress shall not be liable to you or to any third party for any modification, suspension or discontinuance of the Service.
  14. TERMINATION
    You agree that bepress may, under certain circumstances and without prior notice, immediately terminate your bepress account, any associated email address, and access to the Service. Cause for such termination shall include, but not be limited to, (a) breaches or violations of the TOS or other incorporated agreements or guidelines, (b) requests by law enforcement or other government agencies, (c) a request by you (self-initiated account deletions), (d) discontinuance or material modification to the Service (or any part thereof), (e) unexpected technical or security issues or problems, (f) extended periods of inactivity, (g) engagement by you in fraudulent or illegal activities, and/or (h) nonpayment of any fees owed by you in connection with the Services. Further, you agree that all terminations for cause shall be made in bepress's sole discretion and that bepress shall not be liable to you or any third party for any termination of your account, any associated email address, or access to the Service.
  15. DEALINGS WITH ADVERTISERS
    Your correspondence or business dealings with, or participation in promotions of, advertisers found on or through the Service, including payment and delivery of related goods or services, and any other terms, conditions, warranties or representations associated with such dealings, are solely between you and such advertiser. You agree that bepress shall not be responsible or liable for any loss or damage of any sort incurred as the result of any such dealings or as the result of the presence of such advertisers on the Service.
  16. LINKS
    The Service may provide, or third parties may provide, links to other World Wide Web sites or resources. Because bepress has no control over such sites and resources, you acknowledge and agree that bepress is not responsible for the availability of such external sites or resources, and does not endorse and is not responsible or liable for any Content, advertising, products or other materials on or available from such sites or resources. You further acknowledge and agree that bepress shall not be responsible or liable, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with use of or reliance on any such Content, goods or services available on or through any such site or resource.
  17. BEPRESS'S PROPRIETARY RIGHTS
    You acknowledge and agree that the Service and any necessary software used in connection with the Service ("Software") contain proprietary and confidential information that is protected by applicable intellectual property and other laws. You further acknowledge and agree that Content contained in sponsor advertisements or information presented to you through the Service or by advertisers is protected by copyrights, trademarks, service marks, patents or other proprietary rights and laws. Except as expressly authorized by bepress or advertisers, you agree not to modify, rent, lease, loan, sell, distribute or create derivative works based on the Service or the Software, in whole or in part.

    Bepress grants you a personal, non-transferable and non-exclusive right and license to use the object code of its Software on a single computer; provided that you do not (and do not allow any third party to) copy, modify, create a derivative work from, reverse engineer, reverse assemble or otherwise attempt to discover any source code, sell, assign, sublicense, grant a security interest in or otherwise transfer any right in the Software. You agree not to modify the Software in any manner or form, nor to use modified versions of the Software, including (without limitation) for the purpose of obtaining unauthorized access to the Service. You agree not to access the Service by any means other than through the interface that is provided by bepress for use in accessing the Service.
  18. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES
    YOU EXPRESSLY UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT:
    1. YOUR USE OF THE SERVICE IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK. THE SERVICE IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" AND "AS AVAILABLE" BASIS. BEPRESS AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES, AFFILIATES, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, PARTNERS AND LICENSORS EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT.
    2. BEPRESS AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES, AFFILIATES, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, PARTNERS AND LICENSORS MAKE NO WARRANTY THAT (i) THE SERVICE WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS; (ii) THE SERVICE WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE OR ERROR-FREE; (iii) THE RESULTS THAT MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE USE OF THE SERVICE WILL BE ACCURATE OR RELIABLE; (iv) THE QUALITY OF ANY PRODUCTS, SERVICES, INFORMATION OR OTHER MATERIAL PURCHASED OR OBTAINED BY YOU THROUGH THE SERVICE WILL MEET YOUR EXPECTATIONS; AND (v) ANY ERRORS IN THE SOFTWARE WILL BE CORRECTED.
    3. ANY MATERIAL DOWNLOADED OR OTHERWISE OBTAINED THROUGH THE USE OF THE SERVICE IS ACCESSED AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK, AND YOU WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE TO YOUR COMPUTER SYSTEM OR LOSS OF DATA THAT RESULTS FROM THE DOWNLOAD OF ANY SUCH MATERIAL.
    4. NO ADVICE OR INFORMATION, WHETHER ORAL OR WRITTEN, OBTAINED BY YOU FROM BEPRESS OR THROUGH OR FROM THE SERVICE SHALL CREATE ANY WARRANTY NOT EXPRESSLY STATED IN THE TOS.
    5. A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF USERS MAY EXPERIENCE EPILEPTIC SEIZURES WHEN EXPOSED TO CERTAIN LIGHT PATTERNS OR BACKGROUNDS ON A COMPUTER SCREEN OR WHILE USING THE SERVICE. CERTAIN CONDITIONS MAY INDUCE PREVIOUSLY UNDETECTED EPILEPTIC SYMPTOMS EVEN IN USERS WHO HAVE NO HISTORY OF PRIOR SEIZURES OR EPILEPSY. IF YOU, OR ANYONE IN YOUR FAMILY, HAVE AN EPILEPTIC CONDITION, CONSULT YOUR PHYSICIAN PRIOR TO USING THE SERVICE. IMMEDIATELY DISCONTINUE USE OF THE SERVICE AND CONSULT YOUR PHYSICIAN IF YOU EXPERIENCE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS WHILE USING THE SERVICE: DIZZINESS, ALTERED VISION, EYE OR MUSCLE TWITCHES, LOSS OF AWARENESS, DISORIENTATION, ANY INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENT, OR CONVULSIONS.
  19. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
    YOU EXPRESSLY UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT BEPRESS AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES, AFFILIATES, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, PARTNERS AND LICENSORS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, GOODWILL, USE, DATA OR OTHER INTANGIBLE LOSSES (EVEN IF BEPRESS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES), RESULTING FROM: (i) THE USE OR THE INABILITY TO USE THE SERVICE; (ii) THE COST OF PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS AND SERVICES RESULTING FROM ANY GOODS, DATA, INFORMATION OR SERVICES PURCHASED OR OBTAINED OR MESSAGES RECEIVED OR TRANSACTIONS ENTERED INTO THROUGH OR FROM THE SERVICE; (iii) UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS TO OR ALTERATION OF YOUR TRANSMISSIONS OR DATA; (iv) STATEMENTS OR CONDUCT OF ANY THIRD PARTY ON THE SERVICE; OR (v) ANY OTHER MATTER RELATING TO THE SERVICE.
  20. EXCLUSIONS AND LIMITATIONS
    SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN WARRANTIES OR THE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. ACCORDINGLY, SOME OF THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS OF SECTIONS 17 AND 18 MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
  21. SPECIAL ADMONITION FOR SERVICES RELATING TO FINANCIAL MATTERS
    If you intend to use any information or misinformation found in the course of your use of our Service, reread 18 and 19 again. They go doubly for you. In addition, for this type of information particularly, the phrase "Let the investor beware" is apt. The Service is provided for informational purposes only, and no Content included in the Service is intended for trading or investing purposes. Bepress and its licensors shall not be responsible or liable for the accuracy, usefulness or availability of any information transmitted or made available via the Service, and shall not be responsible or liable for any trading or investment decisions based on such information.
  22. NO THIRD-PARTY BENEFICIARIES
    You agree that, except as otherwise expressly provided in this TOS, there shall be no third-party beneficiaries to this agreement.
  23. NOTICE
    Bepress may provide you with notices, including those regarding changes to the TOS, by email, regular mail or postings on the Service.
  24. TRADEMARK INFORMATION
    BEPRESS trademarks include “bepress”, THE BERKELEY ELECTRONIC PRESS, Selected Works, ExpressO, Edikit, and other bepress logos and product and service names are trademarks of bepress (the "bepress Marks"). Without bepress's prior permission, you agree not to display or use in any manner the bepress Marks.
  25. USERS OF BEPRESS SOFTWARE AND SERVICES AGREE THAT THEY WILL NOT VIOLATE ANY LAWS INCLUDING COPYRIGHT LAWS IN THE COURSE OF USING BEPRESS SOFTWARE AND SERVICES AND THAT THEY ARE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR NOT UPLOADING FILES TO WHICH THEY DO NOT HAVE THE COPYRIGHT OR THE PERMISSION TO DO SO FROM THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER.
  26. NOTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR MAKING CLAIMS OF COPYRIGHT OR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INFRINGEMENT
    If you believe your copyright has been infringed by someone using a bepress service or by bepress, see www.bepress.com/copyright_infringement.html.

Permissions
If you are seeking permission to use bepress Content, trademarks, logos, service marks, trade dress, slogans, screen shots, copyrighted designs, or other brand features, please contact the permission requests department, not the copyright agent: .

Effective Date: April 24, 2008